Engineering Services for Composting Facilities
Client: NCompost Management, Inc. Doylestown, Pennsylvania - Engineering Services for Composting Facilities
Compost Management, Inc.: SCS Engineers assisted with the preparation of drawings and supporting documents for a composting facility in southwest Ohio. The facility covers 120 acres and processes source-separated organics from commercial and industrial establishments, as well as yard waste. SCS developed documents in support of state solid waste, air, and water permits, as well as local zoning requirements. City of Branson: SCS Engineers designed a pilot co-composting facility. Testing and operations parameters were developed as part of the project. Performance reporting services also were provided to this Missouri town. Western Waste Industries: SCS Engineers prepared a conceptual design for the Agua Mansa 1200 ton per day material recovery/composting facility in Riverside, California. SCS prepared cost estimates and a marketing plan to meet the requirements of the Riverside County Waste Management Division. Bornhard, Eisenbraun & Associates: SCS Engineers provided composting start up technical assistance and analysis for a material recovery and composting facility located in O'Niell, Nebraska. SCS developed necessary permitting documents and provided on-call field engineering assistance. Rabanco Recycling: SCS Engineers designed a 200 ton per day composting facility for a private waste disposal company in King County, Washington. SCS prepared necessary building permit documents.
Client: Reedy Creek Material Recovery Facility, Lake Buena Vista, Florida
Scope of Services
SCS provided complete architectural and engineering design, construction oversight and start-up assistance for a 110-ton-per-day MRF that serves Walt Disney World in the Orlando, Florida, area. The facility is designed to sort and process various grades of paper, including high grade and cardboard; and containers (plastic, glass, steel, and aluminum). All processing operations are enclosed in a pre-engineered metal building with sorting rooms, full employee facilities, visitor viewing and educational exhibit acres.
SCS developed a conceptual design to establish the type and capacity of processing equipment to serve the unique waste stream of the Disney World resort and surrounding facilities. Next, construction level drawings and specifications were prepared, including architectural, structural, electrical, processing system, and site improvements. A 3,600 sf air-conditioned office space with lunch room, conference room, restrooms, and showers is included in the 32,000 sf building. Also, a scale and scalehouse were designed.
Bid documents were prepared, which were advertised to the general contractor community. SCS assisted with bid review. During the construction phase, SCS provided oversight of the contractors. SCS also monitored start-up and operational testing of the facility. This facility was featured in the August 1993 issue of Waste Age magazine.
Cost: Engineering Fees: $320,000; Construction Cost: The engineer's estimate was $3.5 million; final construction costs were $3.6 million.
Client: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste Washington, D.C.
Federal Procurement Guideline, Feasibility Study for Compost
SCS evaluated the feasibility of a federal procurement guideline requiring agencies using federal funds to purchase compost rather than virgin soil amendments. SCS identified the characteristics and parameters typically used to judge compost quality and to determine if compost is comparable in quality. Some of the parameters evaluated were pathogens, heavy metals, pH, particle size, carbon/nitrogen ratio, salinity and nutrient levels. The study focused on compost from yard trimmings, food scraps and non-recyclable paper.
Analysis of the Potential Effects of Toxics on Municipal Solid Waste Management Options
SCS identified and examined the effects of metals and organic compounds in municipal solid waste (MSW) on the viability of MSW composting as a waste management alternative. SCS analyzed: (1) health concerns posed by the composting process due to the characteristics of MSW, (2) the concentration of metals and organic compounds in MSW compost, (3) the behavior of metals and organic compounds in MSW compost, (4) effects of MSW compost on vegetation and soil organisms, (5) effects caused by direct ingestion of MSW compost or compost-amended soil, and (6) effects caused by ingesting products grown in MSW compost-amended soils. SCS also provided a discussion of existing state and European compost standards.
Evaluation of a Source-Separated Composting Demonstration
SCS is supporting U.S. EPA's Municipal Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) program and the Compost for Earth's Sake program in an assessment of a source-separated organics composting program. Beginning this winter, SCS will conduct a characterization study for source-separated organics collected by a volunteer community to determine the composition of the compost feedstock. SCS will also conduct laboratory analysis of the resultant compost to determine elemental composition and agronomic properties.
Client: Montgomery County, Dept. of Transportation - Multi-task contract to provide services for Solid Waste Management Plan implementation.
SCS is completing a 5-year open-end contract which started in December 1991 to provide diverse on-call technical assistance for a variety of solid waste issues and facilities. The County uses the contract as a tool for staff to make program adjustments based on emerging markets, economic factors, changing regulatory requirements, and fluctuating levels of services to be provided to residents and businesses. Tasks performed include:
- Provided engineering design, plans, specifications, and cost estimate for repairs to the transfer station tipping floor. Monitored construction.
- Assessed condition and make recommendations for repairs to ground water monitoring wells, Oaks Landfill. Monitor and inspect construction.
- Performed peer review of archaeological report for proposed Site 2 Landfill. Provided recommendations for subsequent archaeological work.
- Reviewed the yard waste composting program and provided an update of the plan, addressing the concept of adding other waste to the program.
- Usuing existing data and hydrogeologic studies for the Oaks Landfill, assessed the extent of ground water contamination, projected likely future movement, and provided recommendations for monitoring and remediation. Presented findings to local citizens' group.
- Provided repair, observation, and location surveying for 22 existing ground water monitoring wells at the Oaks Landfill.
- Provided peer review, assistance, and analysis for mixed waste paper recycling, operating costs and volumes.
- Performed siting study for mixed paper MRF and citizen's yard waste drop-off facilities. Developed limits of flood plain impingement, a forest conservation plan, and a traffic assessment. Prepared conceptual designs including floor plans and equipment layout for each of the proposed sites.
- Installed three new monitoring wells at the Oaks Landfill to enable continuing investigations of ground water flow and quality.
- Performed property survey of 114 acres for proposed Site 2 Landfill.
- Conducted market study and evaluated contract for use of newsprint collected with residential recycling program; developed negotiating strategies.
- Installed flow measuring devices and measured quantity and quality of landfill gas (LFG) collected at the Oaks Landfill; estimated LFG recovery rate.
- Reviewed estimate, performed cost analysis, and developed budgetary estimates for Site 2 Landfill.
- Monitored water levels in wells and piezometers at Gude Landfill, developed piezometric map of leachate level, and prepared written report.
- Performed field survey in Wheaton, MD marketplace area to determine types and amount of wastes and recyclables generated.
- Sampled Oaks Landfill LFG to evaluate presence of trace constituents affecting utilization; sampled offsite wells for VOC traces and prepared reports.
- Prepared cost estimate for decommissioning of Dickerson Compost Facility, including 2 ac. pavilion, maintenance building, and 50 ac. work area.
- Performed hydrogeologic investigation of ground water levels, prepared ground water contour map and report; attended citizens' meetings.
- Assessed mixed paper recycling options, including expansion of the MRF and construction of a separate building at the transfer station.
- Performed constructibility review of the 50% design documents for the proposed Site 2 Landfill. Provided suggestions for avoidance of construction problems and change orders and improvement of documents.
- Performed statistical analysis of ground water at the Oaks Landfill. Analysis concentrated on differences between upgradient and downgradient wells, using prediction and tolerance limits and Mann-Kendall trend test.
- Prepared cost estimates for miscellaneous capital improvements at the transfer station, including roads, parking areas, and citizen drop-off areas.
- Performed baseline waste characterization study for the Forest Estates neighborhool as part of a variable rate pilot project aimed at measurement of resident's disposal practices.
Client: Solid Waste Management Plan for Howard County, Maryland
Scope of Services
In September 1991, SCS was retained by Howard County to prepare a solid waste management plan. Tasks included assessment of all laws and regulations and county structure that affects solid waste, and assessment of future needs for 10 years following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy. SCS analyzed alternatives to current practices, including waste-to-energy, municipal solid waste composting, waste reduction initiatives, increased recycling, a yard waste composting facility, a separate construction and demolition debris recovery facility and landfill and associated landfill capacity needs. SCS worked closely with a Citizens Advisory Committee to develop objectives, review alternatives and develop a consensus for the system components to be recommended for implementation. SCS provided presentations, led facility tours and participated in meetings. SCS presented the plan to the planning board and public works board, as well as the public and elected officials. Review meetings with the Maryland Department of the Environment also were held.
A major portion of the development of the solid waste management plan was the preparation of 25-year life cycle cost analyses for seven systems that would manage 100 percent of the materials generated for recycling and processing/disposal. A baseline system was modelled, including residential collection of waste and recyclables, a yard waste composting facility, a landfill (with the cost of a replacement landfill in the future factored in), and costs for separate tire and household hazardous waste collection facilities. Alternative systems were then modelled in order to add other possible components, including a construction and demolition debris recovery facility and landfill, a municipal solid waste compost facility, a waste-to-energy facility, and use of a distant private landfill.
Capital and operating costs were included for all facilities. Capital costs were modelled using County general obligation debt or project revenue bonds, as appropriate. Both annual household costs and tip fees for the commercial sector were developed, for a realistic comparison among alternatives. Consistent methodologies were applied to cost estimates to develop fair comparisons among facility and system costs.
Assessment methodologies developed from the project have application to the DMS project. The project was completed in two-and-one-half years, on schedule. Engineering Fees: $200,000
Client: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency - Assistance in Updating EPA's 1977 Report, "Office Paper Recovery: An Implementation Manual
SCS was retained by the Office of Solid Waste to revise EPA's 1977 guide to office paper recycling in an effort to assist other federal agencies, but also to aid state and local governments, commercial businesses, and private organizations in planning, implementing, and promoting a high-grade office paper recovery program.
For this assignment, SCS reviewed the 1977 manual and identified areas needing change. SCS researched current practices associated with office paper recovery and revised the original format to include methods for planning and implementing a paper recycling program and forecasting the economics of paper recovery. In addition, SCS updated appendices to the manual and added a case study of EPA's recovery program to demonstrate how their program has become a success.
Since the guide was intended primarily for use by federal agency personnel responsible for the implementation and administration of office paper recovery programs, SCS included detailed information regarding the assistance role of the General Services Administration and federal regulations and policies.