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Greenhouse Gas Project Experience
California Climate Action Registry Technical Assistance
Encompassing over 4,000 square miles, with a population of over 10 million (28% of all California residents), the County of Los Angeles is one of the largest municipalities in the United States. As a municipality, Los Angeles County contains 88 incorporated cities, and has over 100,000 employees in over 40 County Departments. In early 2007, under directive from the Board of Supervisors, Los Angeles County joined the California Climate Action Registry (CCAR). Membership in the registry requires Los Angeles County to calculate and report their entity-wide GHG emissions. GHG emissions include electricity use, motor vehicles (and other mobile combustion sources), stationary combustion sources, and power generation emissions. In order to obtain certification for GHG emissions reporting, Los Angeles County must compile records in order to validate the emissions inventory and reporting. In 2007, Los Angeles County used over 11 million gallons of fuels (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuels, etc.)
SCS is assisting Los Angeles County with development of methodologies to compile and report countywide GHG emissions. Specific project elements performed by SCS include:
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Services
County of Sacramento, CA
SCS is assisting Sacramento County with development of methodologies to compile and report countywide GHG emissions. Specific project elements performed by SCS include:
Greenhouse Gas Services
California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB)
The State of California has established annual mandatory reporting of GHG emissions for significant sources and has set emission limits to cut the state’s GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. In response to the debate over landfill GHG emissions estimates, the California Energy Commission (CEC) is conducting a study on landfill methane emissions and capture efficiencies to improve overall estimation of landfill GHG emissions and reductions. SCS was hired by the CIWMB to complete a study that will complement the existing CEC study by providing guidance on ways to achieve landfill GHG reductions, which could then be measured by the methodologies being evaluated in the CEC study. The objective of this study is to evaluate landfill technologies and practices and to recommend practical and cost effective site-specific measures to reduce GHGs from landfills in the state.
SCS’s responsibilities on this project include:
Seminole Road Landfill LFGE Project
DeKalb County, Georgia
The Seminole Road Landfill LFGE facility employs two Caterpillar 3520 engine/generators that burn LFG to produce 3.2 megawatts (MW) of electric power. The project achieves GHG emission reductions both through the destruction of the LFG consumed by the facility as well as by offsetting electric power generated from non-renewables sources. The project began operation in October 2006.
SCS’s responsibilities on this project include:
The plant has a capacity of 3.2 MW. SCS performed this project on a turnkey basis and currently is responsible for operation/maintenance of the facility.
GHG Emission Inventory and CCAR Reporting
SCS reviewed the CCAR’s GHG reporting protocols for Republic Services, Inc., and developed a checklist for compiling data to facilitate GHG reporting. This project will also involve preparing the GHG inventory, completing the inventory in accordance with CCAR requirements, and assisting Republic with the certification process.
To prepare the inventory, SCS has used four categories in assessing Republic’s operations:
SCS reviewed data from each of Republic’s facilities to ascertain the completeness and format of data. We also determined if improvements in data collection and management were necessary for meeting CCAR requirements, and surveyed Republic’s operations to define the scope of emission inventory reporting. The analysis identified which pollutants were being reported, baseline parameters, indirect emissions reporting, deminimis sources, and emission reductions.
Inventory documents used in the analysis included checklists and lists of reporting options, notations where data collection or management procedures required improvements, and recommendations. Based on the results of this analysis, SCS completed the GHG emissions inventory, and prepared a draft summary with supporting documentation. Prior to submittal to CCAR, SCS will participate in a thorough review of the data with Republic. The approved inventory will be submitted to CCAR in the required electronic format (CARROT program).
Technical and Outreach Support for Reducing Methane Emissions from Landfills
United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Global Warming Division, Methane Branch
Since 1996, SCS has been EPA’s prime contractor to provide program management, environmental planning and assessment, outreach, training, and associated services to support the Agency’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP), which is designed to reduce global GHG emissions. Efforts under these two contracts have included:
Environmental Assessments and Economic and Technical Analyses. Performed site evaluations for dozens of landfills located throughout the U.S. and internationally for LFGE potential, including estimating methane quantities, GHG reductions, identifying potential energy users for gas/electricity sales, and evaluating project economics. The analyses have been compiled into reports that outline the assessment procedures, results, recommendations as to whether or not to move forward (with a LFGE project), etc.
International Program Management. The current contract has an international element as well. SCS has supported the EPA’s international outreach programs in Brazil, Ukraine, Poland, Guatemala, the Philippines, Mexico, and Thailand by providing technical management, consultation and feasibility studies at candidate sites, as well as assistance in locating financing for project development from international lending/aid agencies like the United Nations and the World Bank. The focus of this program has been on creating GHG reductions under the Kyoto Protocol.
Pre-Feasibility Studies for the Preparation of LFG-to-Energy Projects in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Uruguay
The World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development, Latin America and the Caribbean Region
SCS was hired by the World Bank to conduct landfill gas to energy (LFGE) pre-feasibility studies at 10 landfills in Latin America. The landfills are located in Brazil (3), Mexico (2), Columbia (3), Uruguay (1), and Peru (1). Five of the landfills were selected for 30-day pump test programs to better evaluate the methane collection potential. Each pump test included installation of three extraction wells, which can be used in a permanent system, nine monitoring probes, and temporary piping and blower/flare.
All of the studies included methane recovery modeling, projection of certified emission reductions (CERs), economic evaluations (including revenues from energy and CER sales, capital, operations, and financing costs), conceptual gas collection system designs, assessment of environmental impacts, and a summary of energy and waste industry sector issues. As part of this project, SCS developed a financial evaluation spreadsheet that accounts for project costs and revenues and calculates net present value and internal rate of return under various project financing, project duration, and CER pricing assumptions. The Bank intends to act as a buyer of CERs for those projects that are ultimately developed under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol.
Appraisal and Due Diligence – Landfill Gas Plan Update
International Finance Corporation, Environmental Finance Group, Carbon Offset Unit
SCS performed a due diligence assessment of the technical and economic aspects of a proposed landfill gas (LFG) project at the Villa Dominico Landfill in Buenos Aires, Argentina. SCS performed the following tasks:
Emission Reduction Credit (ERCs) for Mobile Sources
Waste Management Hauling Operations, CA
SCS has been assisting WM in the preparation and submittal of applications for mobile source credits for their vehicle fleet projects in California. WM has been converting portions of refuse hauling fleets to clean fuels (LNG or CNG) throughout California. Where these fleet conversion are not required by air quality regulations, WM has been applying to bank these mobile source ERCs, and SCS has assisted in this regard.
Assessment of GHG Credits Available and Sales Negotiations
Development Authority of the North Country (DANC), Location
SCS has recently completed LFG Master Plan for this landfill including a Tier 2 Report and projections for LFG production from planned LFG collection system. It appeared that GHG Emissions Reduction Credits could be sold for the site for selected years before the site would potentially trigger NSPS requirements and regulatory thresholds.
SCS prepared an Inventory Assessment of likely LFG production, equivalent CO2 tons reduced through flaring or energy production and estimates of ranges of GHG credits, price ranges and an approach for broker sales to third parties. Brokers were invited to prepare Term Sheets (preliminary sales agreements) for the credits and to approach potential international customers on possible trades. Various options were available including: Immediate Settlement; Forward Settlement; Call Options; Swaps/Bundling. SCS interacted with brokers including Natsource, Cantor Fitzgerald and private Canadian parties in and attempt to attract Credits buyers. Preliminary contract positions were assembled that would be acceptable to potential customer and DANC.
A strategy for measurement and verification of the credits was developed and several potential customer Term Sheets were reviewed and considered. SCS proposed to be compensated on the basis of a percentage of the credits sales. Ultimately, no suitable buyers were found and the effort was discontinued in 2004.
LFGE and Carbon Credit Feasibility Study
MGM International, Inc., Santiago, Chile
The feasibility study evaluated methane recovery and energy utilization options in the context of GHG emissions reductions through the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol.
SCS’ Tasks included the following:
Consulting for LFGE Project to Create Carbon Credits and a Functional Replication Strategy
The World Bank, Mexico
As a consultant to The World Bank, SCS provided quality assurance review services of the work performed by a Mexico City engineering firm. These services included the analysis of projected LFG recovery and corresponding energy project sizing and economics. SCS reviewed the LFG pump test design and implementation and provided technical support in the field during the pump test performance. SCS then analyzed the results of the test and used these data to support assumptions made in the previous LFG generation modeling efforts.
Following the investigation and testing phase, SCS performed the following:
INCaF Appraisal and Due Diligence: Technical and Economic Aspects of the Villa Dominico Landfill
Environmental Finance Group, International Finance Corporation,
Buenos Aires, Argentina
SCS performed a due diligence assessment of the technical and economic aspects of a proposed LFG project at the Villa Dominico Landfill in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The assessment included a site visit and evaluation of the proposed LFG collection and flaring system and estimates of achievable GHG reductions, as reported in the PDD. The assessment also reviewed the monitoring methodology proposed in the PDD to determine any modifications needed to enable verification of the emission reductions generated by the proposed project.
SCS prepared a report that provided the following:
A follow-up assessment study was prepared after one year of field testing was completed that included updated LFG modeling and a report on project environmental impacts.
Protocol for Measuring Methane Emissions Reductions from Landfills
Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc., Chicago, IL
The purpose of this project was to develop a protocol for measuring and verifying greenhouse gas emissions reductions from landfills. The protocol covered the following topics:
ERC Quantification and Verification at Redvale Landfill
Waste Management NZ Ltd (WAM), Auckland, New Zealand
SCS documented the creation of ERCs through recovery and use of methane contained in LFG for evaporation of leachate and the generation of electricity at the Redvale Landfill.
SCS’s tasks included the following: